Josephine’s European roots: The Marcus family in Nakel, Posen

J   Polish or German? ¬†Understanding Josephine’s European roots is complicated by the shifting borders, cultural prejudices, political/economic issues that underly the emergence of Prussia and then modern Germany in the 19th century. Josephine’s parents were from Posen, in the eastern part of Prussia; on today’s map, it is less than 250 miles NW of […]

Josephine’s Family Roots

“A large Jewish community, Posen had been partitioned from Poland in the late eighteenth century and absorbed into Prussia, which would eventually become the core of modern Germany…Jews were encouraged to convert to christianity with the carrot of citizenship and the stick of discrimination; many Jewish schools were closed down, and Jews were severely restricted […]